Painting is the process of applying paint, color, or any other medium on a solid surface with a brush. The paint used is typically applied over the foundation with a brush, although other tools, including sponges, knives, and airbrush guns, can also be used. The painting process is generally classified according to the medium being used and the type of paint being used, although some types of painting are generally lumped together under the term ‘stage painting.’
Oil painting is the most popular form of painting and is generally done on canvas. A basic oil painting primer is used to protect the canvas and give it a smooth, even finish. The main mediums used in this category include acrylic paints, oil, soy, and watercolor. There are also a variety of other painting media used in modern oil painting, including pastels, papers, flexi-pastels, charcoal, and pastel pencils.
Oil painting is achieved through the mixing of a series of oils and solvents, usually in the form of either oil or water. When the painting is dry, it is covered with either varnish or a varnish-like substance that further protects the painting from scratches and protects it from humidity. Oil painters use different techniques to create their paintings. Some use only brush strokes, while others use various types of brush movements and brush designs. Some modern artists have made immense use of stenciling and other painting techniques to add depth and texture to their oil paintings. Oil painters also add other media like cloth, clay, paper, and metal to help them decorate their canvases.
Watercolor painting is achieved by painting with pigments soaked in water. A solution of ammonia and water is applied on the painting surface to remove any dry elements on the surface, thus leaving the paint moist. Most artists prefer watercolor paintings because they are able to apply colors and layers more easily. The main disadvantage of watercolor painting is that you have to constantly re-apply the paint if you wish to change its color. This type of painting requires an incredible skill as well as patience.
Temperate painting, as its name suggests, uses a medium that is heated between about 150 and 180 degrees Celsius. This medium is often made out of cotton and/or linseed oil. Most mediums used for tempera painting are fixed, meaning that they cannot be moved during the painting process. Two important characteristics of this type of painting are that the pigment does not dry out, and the binder does not bind the pigment. It is usually required that a medium like tempera be prepared before painting since the binder cannot be added during the painting process.
The major benefit of using tempera paint over other types of paint is that it can provide infinite choices for the artist. Since there is an abundance of choices, an artist can create paintings that are unique and have a wide range of different colors. Some artists prefer to paint with only one color while others may want to create works with several colors. One of the biggest drawbacks to tempera paint is that it is very messy, since there is a lot of loose powder in the paint. Paints can also sometimes flake, which makes it difficult to apply the paint and ensure that the pigment is even across the surface of the painting. Other disadvantages of painting with this medium include the time needed to dry between coats, the time it takes to mix the colors, and the risk of fire due to volatile components in the oil used to prepare the paint.